Sampling of liquid in a thermal spring

A thermal spring is composed of many reactive dissolved geothermal gases, which interact with minerals and groundwater leading to a rich ion and colourful solution. Sampling a liquid of this solution requires immediately filtration in situ, for some analysis also acidification, at the sampling site in order to preserve the integrity of the sample and obtain accurate, representative analytical results.

Here are some illustrations of this process.

Fumaroles2

Furmaroles are areas composed of thermal springs and/or gas vents, where the magmatic materials release their gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), which might mix with groundwater during their ascent to the surface.

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